Production Control in Design 
Corresponding Author: Ballard, Glenn 
Author(s): Ballard, G.
Organisation(s): Lean Construction Institute (USA)
Production control in design and engineering has followed the prevailing model of project control, relying on ever more detailed budgets and schedules in the planning phase, and using a control philosophy more akin to accounting than to causing the future to conform to plan. Both detailed upfront planning and deviation-seeking control are as inappropriate and ineffective in design as in construction. This deficiency becomes glaringly apparent when the delivery model is concurrent engineering, with its drive for simultaneous design of product and process as well as the early involvement of downstream players. The paper offers a conceptual framework and case study findings in support of the Last Planner production control methodology, developed as part of the application of lean production concepts and techniques to the AEC industry and its capital projects. A strategy is proposed for improving design performance based on this production control methodology. Design performance is to be measured in terms of generating value for the project stakeholders.