Concurrent Engineering Issues in the Aerospace Industry -
Lessons to be Learned for Construction?
Corresponding Author: Tookey, John
Author(s): Tookey, J.E. (*), and Betts, J. (+) 
Organisation(s): (*) Department of Building and Surveying, Glasgow Caledonian University (UK), (+) Department of Industrial Technology, University of Bradford (UK)
In the last 20 years, manufacturing industry has found that over-specialisation of particular functions leads to significant problems. Primarily these problems tend to result from the separation of design, engineering and production functions, and the consequent inability of these functions to communicate effectively. This situation results in the lengthening of development times on projects and, significantly, costs rising dramatically. In order to resolve these problems, manufacturers have introduced new methods of working and organisational structures which facilitate an integrated approach to design, development and production. These techniques have resulted in a myriad of acronyms, but one of the foremost approaches is that of Concurrent Engineering (CE). This relatively new philosophy of design and manufacture has sought to re-introduce the flexibility and adaptability of the craftsman on a macro-scale, using multi-disciplinary teams, organised by process rather than function, to continuously consider all factors involved in production. This multi-disciplinary approach creates a truly integrated product of the craftsman whilst simultaneously retaining economy of scale needed for profitable manufacturing. Such increased ‘responsiveness’ to customer demand - ‘agility’ in manufacturing parlance - has now become a watchword amongst world class manufacturers, and is gaining in importance all the time.